The summer of 2022 marked the period where most of the field sampling took place as part of LEON-T work package 3. TNO has been busy with the collection of as much tyre wear material as possible in different environmental compartments. The collected samples will be analysed and the amount of tyre wear will be determined afterwards. This data serves as input and validation for the emission and fate models which will be employed within LEON-T. An overview of all the different sampling locations is shown below.
The measurements within The Netherlands focussed on three locations, one at a rural background location (Cabauw), one near a busy intersection in a city (Rotterdam), and finally one near a highway (A2). An impression of the sampling setups at four different locations is shown below. In picture 1 the offline air sampling setup in Rotterdam is illustrated, where total suspended particles (TSP), particles up to 10, 2.5 and 1 µm (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 respectively) were collected on two different types of filters simultaneously. In picture 2 the multi-stage cascade impactor can also be seen along with the TSP, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 sampling at the A2. The cascade impactor collects particles in size fractions from 30 nm to 10 µm in 13 different stages. Picture 3 shows the air sampling setup at Cabauw, where the air sampling of the TSP, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 fractions was done using Leckels (right side of photo). The impactor is shown in the front left of the photo in picture 3, and the online air sampling is shown in the back, which contained real-time concentration measurements of particles from 1 nm to 20 µm, along with black carbon (BC) measurements. Picture 4 shows one of the deposition samplers near the A2 highway, which was used to collect dry and wet deposition of particles. The entire measurement campaign employed 7 of these deposition samplers at various locations and distances from the road.
Alongside the air sampling which is shown in this figure, soil, water and runoff samples were collected as well. The next phase in the field measurement campaign is already in full swing, with the analysis of the collected filter material at TNO in the current and coming months. This analysis consists of SEM-EDX, TGA-GCMS, LC-MSMS, ICP-MS and EC/OC analysis, and will allow for an accurate determination of the total amount of tyre wear in the environmental samples.